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Republic of Congo

Member

Republic of Congo (Congo Brazzaville)

Geography and Population

The Republic of Congo is located in the Central Africa and border the South Atlantic Ocean. Her capital is Brazzaville located along the Congo River. She borders Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon. Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. The country covers a total of 342,000 sq km with land occupying: 341,500 sq km while water is 500 sq km with a population of 5,677,493 million people. She is characterized by tropical climate; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; 

particularly enervating climate astride the Equator. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa’s largest petroleum producers. The land has vast natural resources petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas and hydropower. 

 

Most Congolese are Bantu, and most belong to one of four main ethnic groups, the Kongo, Teke, Mbochi, and Sangha, which consist of over 70 subgroups. French is the official language, while French Lingala and Monokutuba are the trade languages. However the country is characterized by many local languages and dialects.

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Economic overview

Primarily an oil- and natural resources-based economy; recovery from mid-2010s oil devaluation has been slow and curtailed by COVID-19; extreme poverty increasing, particularly in southern rural regions; attempting to implement recommended CEMAC reforms; the increasing likelihood of debt default.

 

Governance Structure

The government consists of three arms as described below:

 

The Executive is made of the Chief of State who is the President and the head of government who is the Prime Minister and the council of ministers of the various departments who are directly appointed by the President.

 

The Legislative arm is a bicameral Parliament which consists of: the Senate (72 seats; members indirectly elected by local, district, and regional councils by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (151 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

 

The Judiciary is an independent arm of Government whose main role is to uphold the rule of law and is formed of a mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law. The judiciary is categorized into two; the highest courts and the subordinate courts. The highest courts consist of; the Supreme Courts or Court Supreme and the Constitutional Court. Besides, there is a High Court of Justice, outside the judicial authority, which tries cases involving treason by the President of the Republic. On the other hand, the subordinate court is made of the Court of Audit and Budgetary Discipline; courts of appeal; regional and district courts; employment tribunals and juvenile courts.

 

Safety and Security

The country has experienced various coup attempts leading civil wars since 1992 resulting in a lot of IDPs and refugees fleeing to neighbouring countries. However, currently, the country has stability save for violent crimes such as armed robbery, assault and other related crimes.

 

Membership to Regional Blocs

The Republic of Congo is a member of various regional blocs including the Regional Centre on Small Arms and Light Weapons. Others include the UN, AU, COMESA, and ICGLR among others



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